Accelerated development and introduction plans (ADIPs)
Accelerated development and introduction plans are time-limited programs designed to address challenges to making available new life-saving vaccines in developing countries. The aim of an ADIP is to shorten the time lag between a vaccine being proven to be safe and effective for use and its development for specific introduction in poor countries. In June 2002, the GAVI Board endorsed the creation of two ADIPs: the "Rotavirus Vaccine Program" and the "PneumoADIP".
Working with GAVI, WHO, the vaccine industry, and other partners, the ADIPs support the establishment of surveillance systems, conduct cost-effectiveness analyses, support demand forecasting, and engage in both global and country level advocacy. During 2008, focus will shift from vaccine development to introduction.
Advance market commitment (AMC)
An advance market commitment provides a way of accelerating the discovery and manufacture of vaccines. It is based on the concept of putting money aside to guarantee the purchase of vaccines once they are developed, providing that they meet stringent, pre-agreed criteria on effectiveness, cost, and availability, and that developing countries demand them. The aim is to stimulate investment in research, development, and the establishment of manufacturing facilities, while giving governments in developing countries control over which vaccines they need. By guaranteeing an affordable long-term price, often referred to as the tail price, the AMC supports sustained use of the vaccine. In 2007, GAVI began working with partners on a US$ 1.5 billion AMC pilot to fund the introduction of suitable pneumococcal vaccines in GAVI-eligible countries. For more information, please visit
Annual progress report (APR)
Countries provide an annual progress report to the GAVI Secretariat by 15 May each year. GAVI relies upon annual progress reports to monitor and evaluate the use of GAVI support in all eligible countries. This single tool provides a comprehensive framework for reporting on all GAVI programmes, and allows countries to flexibly modify planning for subsequent years. Annual progress reports are required for continued support. The Independent Review Committee reviews each report to determine whether funding should continue and if adjustments are needed. Before submission for review, each report is screened by in-country partners and certified by each country’s Interagency Coordinating Committee.
An antigen is the active component of a vaccine which stimulates the body to produce the antibodies which fight off disease.
Auto-disable syringes (AD syringes)
Autodisable syringes are single-use syringes with a blocking mechanism to prevent their re-use and thus support immunisation safety. GAVI has supported the use of autodisable syringes as a principal strategy within injection safety.
Birth cohort
The birth cohort is the number of children born in a country in a given year.
Buffer stock
A buffer stock is an additional stock of vaccine that enables countries to respond rapidly to distribution irregularities and unplanned events. To ensure that countries have sufficient vaccines, the buffer stock is normally assumed to be 25% of the vaccine requirements (three months’ supply) for any given year. All new and underused vaccines support from GAVI takes into account the need for a buffer stock of vaccines.
Burden of disease
The burden of disease refers to the magnitude of a health problem in an area, measured by mortality (deaths), morbidity (persons affected by disease or illness), and other indicators such as permanent disability. Knowledge of the burden of disease can help determine where investment in health interventions and systems should be targeted. Disease burden studies are carried out at global, regional, and national levels to guide vaccine investment policy and introduction decisions.
Vaccination campaigns offer additional opportunities to reach the unimmunised. They are part of a range of immunisation strategies that reach beyond the usual parameters of routine immunisation programmes (such as number of doses or target population age). They have the objective of accelerating the immunisation of a large group of individuals in a limited timeframe of days or weeks. Campaigns rapidly reduce the person-to-person transmission of some contagious diseases, and are an effective adjunct to routine immunisation for accelerating disease control efforts. "Catch-up" campaigns or other immunisation strategies target a previously unimmunised population at risk for illness or disease outbreaks.
Children’s Vaccine Initiative (CVI)
Founded after the World Summit for Children in September 1990, the Children’s Vaccine Initiative had three goals: 1) the immunisation of all children; 2) research to determine the feasibility of a single-dose multivalent vaccine; and 3) introduction of new vaccines for infectious diseases. CVI was the predecessor to the GAVI Alliance.
Civil society organisation (CSO)
Civil society organisations include nongovernmental organisations, community-based groups, academic institutions, professional organisations, faith-based organisations, women’s organisations, technical institutes, and research institutions. Recognising the key role that CSOs play in immunisation and child health, in 2005, the GAVI Board decided to strengthen the involvement of CSOs in the GAVI Alliance. Since 2007, two types of support for CSOs have been available: Type A is a lump sum each country can apply for and use for strengthening CSO collaboration and representation at country and international levels. Type B support is available to 10 countries in the 2007–2009 pilot phase, providing a direct funding opportunity for CSOs in these countries. A CSO constituency is evolving with representatives from global, national, and local CSOs.
Co-financing, introduced by GAVI in 2007, means countries share the cost of the vaccines supplied by the GAVI Alliance. The intention is to ensure immunisation programmes are sustainable in the long-term. GAVI-eligible countries have been grouped according to their expected ability to pay, and the co-financing levels vary across the different groups.
Cold chain
The cold chain is a system of refrigeration used for keeping and distributing vaccines at the correct temperature and in good condition, from the manufacturer to the point of use by the health worker. This consists of a series of cold storage and transport links, such as refrigerators, cold boxes, and vaccine carriers with cool packs, all designed to keep the vaccine at appropriate temperatures so that it remains sterile and potent until it reaches the user. Most vaccines should be kept at between 2-8°C and while some can be damaged by freezing, others can be damaged by excessive heat. All GAVI-supplied vaccines are equipped with vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) so that vaccines which have gone outside of the acceptable temperature range are not used.
Combination vaccine
Combination vaccines are formulated with antigens against several infectious agents or pathogens in one injection (for example DTP, DTP-HepB, or DTP-HepB+Hib).
Comprehensive multi-year plan for immunisation (cMYP)
This is a single plan which consolidates several immunisation activities. It is a key planning and management tool for national immunisation programmes. It addresses global, national, and subnational immunisation objectives and strategies, and evaluates the costs and financing of the programme in line with the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy 2006-2015. GAVI requires countries to submit a cMYP along with the standard proposal form when applying for GAVI support (ISS, INS, and NVS). In 2006, over 50 countries had developed cMYPs using the WHO-UNICEF cMYP guidelines and costing tool. The cMYP replaces the Financial Sustainability Plan.
Conjugate vaccine
This is a vaccine that is formulated by chemically linking sugar chains derived from the pathogen to a protein backbone. Conjugate vaccines supported by GAVI include Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.
Data quality audit (DQA)
The DQA was designed to verify reported performance as well as improve immunisation monitoring and reporting systems. It reviews the records of number of children vaccinated in order to estimate the accuracy of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) reporting system. In order to receive the reward element of GAVI’s Immunisation Services Support (ISS), countries must demonstrate both an increase in the number of additional infants immunised compared to the previous year and have passed a data quality audit.
Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN)
The DCVMN is a global group of vaccine producers from developing and middle-income countries which exists to facilitate networking and collaboration. It is represented by one seat on the GAVI Alliance Board.
Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP)
Three combined doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine are usually provided in the first six months of life according to national immunisation schedules. Coverage with the third dose of DTP, known as DTP3, is an indicator used by the World Health Organization and GAVI as a measure of immunisation programme strength. One of GAVI’s goals is for all countries to achieve routine immunisation coverage (DTP3) of 90% nationally with at least 80% coverage in every district by 2010.
Direct government funding
Cash received directly from government donors is channeled into the GAVI Fund Account or a World Bank Trust Account being held on behalf of the GAVI Fund. Government contributions are increasingly being made on a multi-year basis. Through both its government funding and its innovative financing mechanisms, GAVI seeks to secure a robust, predictable, multi-year funding base sufficient to meet long term commitments made to GAVI-eligible countries.
Eligible country (also "GAVI-eligible country")
There are 72 countries with a GNI per capita of US$ 1000 or less in 2003 which are eligible to apply for GAVI support. For a list of the currently eligible countries please click here. For Health System Strengthening (HSS) and certain types of new vaccine support, additional criteria apply, and therefore not all GAVI-eligible countries qualify for these types of support.
Evaluation requires a systematic and objective assessment of design, implementation, and results. The main objective of evaluation at GAVI is to improve the performance of GAVI operations and policies by incorporation of lessons learnt into the decision-making process.
Every Child Council
The Every Child Council, an honourary group, was established in 2007 to support the work of GAVI’s private philanthropy effort, the "Immunize Every Child Campaign." It includes individuals from public and private life who have made or secured significant financial commitments to support the immunisation cause.
Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
Since its inception in 1974, the Expanded Programme on Immunization has brought together partners under the auspices of the World Health Organization to increase immunisation coverage from the then low levels of 5% to the current levels, which are close to 80%. The traditional EPI vaccines are BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin, against tuberculosis), DTP (against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis), oral polio vaccine (OPV), and measles.