June 2001: Current
Global Alliance for Vaccines and
Board Member Organizational Profiles
The Bill and Melinda Gates
Childrens Vaccine Program at PATH
In December 1998, the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation announced a five-year, $100 million program designed
to help speed the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines
worldwide: the Bill and Melinda Gates Childrens Vaccine Program
(Gates CVP). The Gates CVP focuses on increasing access to vaccines
to prevent hepatitis B, Hib disease, pneumococcal disease, rotavirus,
yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis. The Gates CVP believes it
is a human right and moral obligation that all the worlds
children should have equal and timely access to new, life-saving
Bill and Melinda Gates chose PATH, Program for
Appropriate Technology in Health, to implement their program. PATH
is an independent, non-profit organization based in Seattle, Washington
(USA). PATH, as the operating agency of the International Task Force
on Hepatitis B Immunization, was instrumental in making hepatitis
B vaccine available to millions of children worldwide. Through the
Gates CVP, PATH works closely with the World Health Organization,
UNICEF, the World Bank and other partners to overcome barriers to
vaccine introduction in the developing world. The barriers include
the lack of:
- Information about disease burden and the
cost-effectiveness of vaccines to prevent those diseases
- Advocacy for new vaccine introduction
- Resources for procurement of vaccine, strengthening
immunization infrastructure and developing new or better vaccines
and vaccine delivery systems
To this end, the Gates CVP supports model programs,
specific types of research, international meetings and conferences,
global advocacy and communication and efforts to ensure adequate
vaccine supply and financing.
Gates CVP Involvement with GAVI
The Gates CVP is a founding member of the Global
Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and is an active participant
on the GAVI Board, Working Group and Task Forces.
The Gates CVP, working closely with the Gates
Foundation, also has been instrumental in creation of the Vaccine
Fund. In late 1999, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced
a generous $750 million contribution to establish the Vaccine Fund.
Contributions from a variety of other donors are expected soon.
The Gates CVP will administer the Vaccine Fund until separate offices and
staff are in place, probably by mid-2000.
For more information about the Gates CVP, visit
the website at www.ChildrensVaccine.org
of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations
The mission of the International Federation
of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA) is to represent,
through its member associations, the international pharmaceutical
and vaccine industry engaged in the research and development and
quality manufacturing of innovative therapeutic and preventive medicines
and vaccines. The IFPMA represents over 55 national industry associations
from both developed and developing countries. Companies in membership
of the IFPMA are the major global research-based pharmaceutical
and vaccine companies.
The IFPMA strives to create a global environment
that fosters innovation in preventing and curing diseases, and regulation
that expedites approval of new chemical and biological treatments
for patients and assures the availability of genuine quality of
vaccines and medicines.
In the current research and development pipeline,
industry has over 100 medicines and vaccines for infectious diseases,
many of which are particularly relevant to the developing world.
These include for diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis,
dengue, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrheal diseases and
IFPMAs Role in GAVI
The IFPMA is a full partner in the Global Alliance
for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). The vaccine producers, members
of IFPMA, have a long-standing legacy of working with international
public health agencies to ensure the enhancement of health for children
globally, through immunization.
Through the alliance, member partners will address
ways to accelerate the development and introduction of new vaccines
specifically needed by developing countries.
The vaccine industry members of the IFPMA will,
in cooperation with their GAVI partners, work to ensure accessibility
to vaccines for all the worlds children with a particular
focus on the poorest people and countries.
The specific vaccine industry partners involved
in GAVI are those that produce the greatest share of the global
vaccine supply. They are:
- Aventis Pasteur
- SmithKline Beecham
- American Home Products
- Merck & Co., Inc.
- Chiron Vaccines
- BERNA Swiss Serum & Vaccine Institute
Berne (representing smaller vaccine producers)
For more information about IFPMA, visit its
website at www.ifpma.org
The Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation is a knowledge-based,
global foundation with a commitment to enrich and sustain the lives
and livelihoods of poor and excluded people throughout the world.
Chartered in 1913, the Foundation is a philanthropic organization
endowed by John D. Rockefeller.
It has four specific goals:
- Its primary focus is on people who are poor
and excluded. Poor people, in the United States and elsewhere,
tend to suffer disproportionately from ill health, inadequate
education and housing, and from environmental degradation. Their
life expectancies and quality of life are reduced by factors that
are understood and preventable. The Foundation recognizes that
the advancement of humanity rests ultimately on the inclusion
of the poor in the process.
- It is a truly global foundation, in the sense
that its has global awareness and global values. The Foundation
contributes to global learning and harnesses global policies,
knowledge and resources to improve conditions in specific places
around the world.
- The Foundation aims to improve peoples
lives and livelihoods. This focus reveals that we must not deal
with problems in isolation. Food, health, jobs and culture are
all intertwined in peoples lives.
- Its work relies heavily on knowledge and
bases its programs on science, technology, research and analysis.
Globally, we face many difficult and complex challenges, and the
Foundation will be judged by how effective Foundation grantees
are at overcoming formidable constraints and finding solutions
to difficult problems.
The Foundation has identified four thematic
lines of work: Food Security, Health Equity, Creativity and Culture,
and Working Communities. These four are supported and supplemented
by a fifth cross-cutting theme of Global Inclusion.
The Rockefeller Foundations endowment
currently exceeds $3.5 billion, and its budget for 2000 will be
in excess of $186 million.
The Rockefeller Foundations
Role in GAVI
The Foundation is a partner in the Global Alliance
for Vaccines and Immunization. Rockefellers support of GAVI
contributes to the Foundations goal of advancing global health
equity by pursuing the reduction of avoidable and unfair differences
in the health status of populations.
For more information about the Foundation, visit
United Nations Childrens
Founded in 1946, United Nations Childrens
Fund (UNICEF) is mandated by the United Nations General Assembly
to advocate for the protection of childrens rights, to help
meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach
their full potential. UNICEF is guided by the Convention on the
Rights of the Child and strives to establish childrens rights
as enduring ethical principles and international standards of behaviour
towards children. UNICEFs main function is to mobilise political
will and material resources to help countries, particularly developing
countries, ensure "first call for children" and to build
their capacity to form appropriate policies and deliver services
for children and their families.
UNICEF gives high priority to country programme
operations. At country level, UNICEF works with other UN agencies,
governments and civil society organisations to lighten childrens
loads through support to community-based services in primary health
care, basic education, and safe water and sanitation. For over a
decade, as part of its mandate to promote child survival, UNICEF
has advocated, mobilised resources and built capacity in government
systems and communities to ensure that children receive basic immunization
services. UNICEF, the worlds largest purchaser of vaccines
for developing countries, is a key partner in global immunization
UNICEF, with world headquarters in New York
and Geneva, maintains programmes in 161 countries, with 86 percent
of its staff posts located in the field. Its Supply Division, based
in Copenhagen, is responsible for global purchasing, including some
$100 million per year spent on vaccines and safe injection equipment.
UNICEFs role in GAVI
In the 1980s, UNICEF was a major force
behind the drive for Universal Child Immunisation, which saw 80
percent of the worlds children immunized against the six vaccine-preventable
diseases. Throughout the 1990s, UNICEFs work in immunization
was guided by the commitments made at the 1990 World Summit for
Children and the principles of the Convention for the Rights of
the Child. Through its long experience, UNICEF has gained expertise
and skills in ensuring that immunization is on the political agenda
of governments; in helping communities and families to understand
the importance of preventive health and immunization, in particular;
and in vaccine procurement.
UNICEF is a founding partner in the Global Alliance
for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). Ms. Carol Bellamy, Executive
Director of UNICEF, is an ex-officio member of the GAVI Board. Ms.
Bellamy will chair the GAVI Board for a two-year term starting in
late 2001. UNICEF chairs the GAVI Task Force on Advocacy, which
is responsible for coordinating global advocacy and communications
efforts of the GAVI partners. UNICEF also manages the GAVI Trust
Fund, which disperses collective funds for activities approved by
the GAVI Board.
For more information about UNICEF or immunization,
The World Bank
The World Banks mission is to fight poverty
with passion and professionalism for lasting results. Founded in
1944, the World Bank Group consists of five closely associated institutions:
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; International
Development Association, International Finance Corporation; Multilateral
Investment Guarantee Agency; and the International Centre for Settlement
of Investment Disputes. James D. Wolfensohn is the President of
the World Bank, which is owned by more than 180 member countries
whose views and interests are represented by a Board of Governors
and a Washington-based Board of Directors.
The World Bank is the worlds largest source
of development assistance, providing nearly $30 billion in loans
annually to its client countries. The Bank uses its financial resources,
its highly trained staff, and its extensive knowledge base to individually
help each developing country onto a path of stable, sustainable,
and equitable growth. The main focus is on helping the poorest people
and the poorest countries, but for all its clients the Bank emphasizes
the need for:
- Investing in people, particularly through
basic health and education
- Protecting the environment
- Supporting and encouraging private business
- Strengthening the ability of the governments
to deliver quality services, efficiently and transparently
- Promoting reforms to create a stable macroeconomic
environment, conducive to investment and long-term planning
- Focusing on social development, inclusion,
governance, and institution-building as key elements of poverty
The Bank is also helping countries to strengthen
and sustain the fundamental conditions they need to attract and
retain private investment.
The World Banks Involvement
The World Bank is a member of the Governing Board
of GAVI and co-chairs GAVIs Task Force on Financing. The Bank
is committed to increasing its contribution to immunization through:
- Enhancing its policy dialogue with Ministries
of Finance and Ministries of Health and other partners to encourage
recognition of the value of immunization and new vaccine development
- Expanding its loans and credits in support
- Consulting and working with public and private
sector partners to create new financing options to accelerate
the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine and other priority vaccines,
such as against malaria or tuberculosis
For more information about the World Bank, visit www.worldbank.org
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO) was founded in
1948. A specialized agency of the United Nations with 191 Member
States, WHO promotes technical cooperation for health among nations,
carries out programs to control and eradicate disease, and strives
to improve the quality of human life. Its objective is the attainment
by all peoples of the highest possible levels of health.
WHO has four main functions:
- To give worldwide guidance in the field
- To set global standards for health
- To cooperate with governments in strengthening
national health programs
- To develop and transfer appropriate health
technology, information and standards
One of WHOs major achievements includes
the eradication of smallpox, a disease that scarred and killed millions
before being officially declared eradicated in 1980. Eradication
resulted in a huge reduction of human suffering and great financial
savings. Other diseases, such as polio and guinea-worm, are now
on the threshold of eradication, and leprosy is also being overcome.
But, as well as fighting infectious disease, WHO is the leading
international public health agency in efforts to improve access
to and equality of health care, fight a growing worldwide burden
of non-communicable diseases, deliver essential drugs and support
the development of new drugs, promote healthy lifestyles and environments,
and develop quantitative methods to analyse health policy options.
WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland with six
Regional Offices covering the globe and over 100 country offices.
Its supreme decision-making body is the World Health Assembly, which
WHOs Role in GAVI
WHOs Department of Vaccines and Biologicals
is charged with ensuring that all people at risk should be protected
against vaccine-preventable diseases.(www.who.int/vaccines/en/aboutus.shtml).
On the basis of targets established by the World Health Assembly,
three major objectives have been defined for the Department: innovation,
immunization systems and accelerated disease control. Within each
of these broad objectives, there are priority projects with specific
measurable goals. For innovation, the priority project is the accelerated
introduction of new vaccines. For immunization systems, the priority
project is to increase immunization safety. And for accelerated
disease control, the priority is polio eradication.
WHO is a partner in the Global Alliance for
Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and WHOs Director-General,
Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, is currently chair of the GAVI Board.
WHO also chairs the GAVI Task Force on Country Coordination, which
is responsible for developing and identifying the best mechanisms
for coordinating stakeholders activities at country level.
For more information about WHO, visit www.who.int
GAVI Secretariat, c/o UNICEF, Palais des Nations,
1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
Tel: 41 22 909 5019 Fax: 41 22 909 5931 Email: Gavi@unicef.org