General principles for use of GAVI/Vaccine Fund resources in phase 2
Adopted by the GAVI Board in July 2005
and the Vaccine Fund Board in June 2005
GAVI was launched by a coalition of public and private sector partners in 2000 to combat a global trend of declining routine immunization coverage and to accelerate access to new and life-saving vaccines.
The Vaccine Fund was established by GAVI partners to help fill critical gaps in the overall global effort by increasing the funding available for immunization, funding new and underutilized vaccines and leveraging market forces to render such products accessible to the poorest countries. The Vaccine Fund focuses its resources to support the poorest countries (countries below $1,000 GNI/capita); resources are additional and complementary to investments made by GAVI partners, including developing country governments.
Country support investment areas
The GAVI Board has identified three core programmatic areas for which Vaccine Fund resources are uniquely appropriate:
1. strengthening routine immunization services as part of overall health sector development;
2. supporting increased use of under-used vaccines;
3. accelerating development of and access to new priority vaccines and immunization-related technologies.
Country support funding principles
Recognizing that Vaccine Fund resources are only one source of support for national immunization programs, the GAVI Board follows a set of core principles in making decisions about areas in which to invest Vaccine Fund resources. Funding should:
- contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals, focusing on performance, outcomes and results;
- promote equity in access to immunization services within and among countries;
- support nationally-defined priorities, budget processes and decision-making; financing for immunization services should be non-earmarked to the greatest extent possible;
- focus on near-term vaccines as opposed to upstream research and development activities;
- contribute to the development of innovative models or approaches that can be introduced and applied more broadly;
- be coherent with GAVI partners’ individual institutional obligations and mandates;
- be catalytic and time-limited, though not necessarily short term, and not replace existing sources of funding;
- support activities that over time become financially sustainable, or do not need to be sustained in order to have accomplished their catalytic purpose.
- through market impact and innovative business models render vaccines and related technologies more affordable for the poorest countries
Choices regarding the types of activities and interventions which GAVI supports and offers to countries are based on evidence and prioritization of resources.
Provision of Vaccine Fund resources to countries
The GAVI Board bases its country funding on a bottom-up national application process that includes review by an independent expert review committee. Country applications for funding need to include a fully costed, comprehensive, multi-year immunization programme plan and documented multi-partner engagement and support.
The application process builds upon and strengthens existing planning and evaluation processes so as to minimize burden on countries.
Other uses of Vaccine Fund resources
The GAVI Board also allocates a limited amount of Vaccine Fund resources to support partner activities undertaken on behalf of the Alliance, as identified in the GAVI Board work plan. In addition, a small number of projects can be funded to accelerate introduction of priority vaccines; currently GAVI supports Accelerated Development and Introduction Plans (ADIPs) for rotavirus and pneumoccocal vaccines, and a special project to increase the evidence base for Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.