Immunization services support (ISS)
In a novel approach to development aid, GAVI partners have designed a performance-based funding system that provides financial incentives for countries to improve health outcomes - in this case, increased vaccination coverage. Countries receive three years of investment payments, based on the number of additional children targeted to receive three doses of DTP. There are no rules about how the money should be used; the government and its technical and development partners make local disbursement decisions.
After the investment phase, a country needs to reliably report increased coverage to receive additional funding, or performance payments. Immunization coverage data are independently audited to ensure system integrity.
Inactivated vaccines consist of either killed organisms i.e. Pertussis vaccine, inactivated microbial Exotoxin i.e. Tetanus Toxoid, or purified fractions of micro-organisms i.e. Pneumococcus vaccine. Inactivated vaccines are often weakly immunogenic and are thus less effective than live vaccines at inducing long lasting immunity. These vaccines are thus often combined with an adjuvant.
Countries applying for support through GAVI are required to develop an injection safety plan as part of their application to the Vaccine Fund.
In 2003 the GAVI Board endorsed new proposals for injection safety support allowing Vaccine Fund eligible countries to receive enough AD syringes and safety boxes to vaccinate all infants (under 12 months) against those diseases included in their own national routine immunization schedule. In addition GAVI provides 3 years of support towards injection-safety activities.
Inter-agency Coordinating Committee (ICC)
ICCs are a key coordinating mechanism for immunization services in developing countries. These committees are usually chaired by the Ministry of Health and membership includes agencies such as WHO, UNICEF, NGOs and the private sector. GAVI requires ICC signatures on all country applications for, and annual progress reports on, Vaccine Fund support.
International Finance Facility (IFF)
A mechanism first proposed by the UK government to provide significant additional funds for development assistance. By front-loading donors’ existing aid commitments, the facility would make an additional US$ 50 billion a year in of development assistance available between now and 2015 to help countries achieve the MDGs.
International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm)
GAVI is actively exploring using an IFF-style mechanism to secure urgently needed additional funding for vaccines and immunization services in the poorest countries. GAVI partners estimate that with an increased investment of US$ 4 billion over 10 years, the lives of and additional over 5 million children could be saved during the decade up to 2015.
A UK-registered charity, to which the Vaccine Fund Affiliate (the entity that receives funds from the IFFIm donor governments) will assign pledges, received from the IFFIm donors.
The GAVI Board has decided that all future global decisions about new use of Vaccine Fund resources will require that an ‘investment case’ be submitted, for review and decision. Five investment cases will be submitted for GAVI Board review at its July 2005 meeting.
Investment Case Framework
Term used to describe the process of preparing, reviewing and deciding upon investment cases.
Investment Case Guidelines
Set of guidelines developed by the World Bank that broadly determine the format and content when writing up an investment case. These guidelines ensure that:
• The GAVI Board is provided with enough information to determine whether a given investment fits with overall GAVI principles
• Basic data analyses available to Board for evidence-based decision on use of limited Vaccine Fund resources.