Puncture proof boxes used for the storage of sharp wastes before incineration. GAVI provides safety boxes with all vaccines it provides.
Sector Wide Approach (SWAp)
Also called the sectoral approach, it envisages a shift from disease-specific projects to an approach which aims to support the health sector as a whole. A sector is seen as a clearly defined institutional and budget framework for which the government has defined policies.
This concept was developed to calculate Vaccine Fund contribution to immunization services. Each share represents the Vaccine Fund’s contribution toward immunizing one child.
Countries applying for ISS funding in the first round of applications in 2000 became eligible in 2004 for four years of reward share funding, calculated at $20 based on the actual number of additional children immunized with DTP3.
A stockpile is a special vaccine reserve to be used in emergencies (i.e. supply disruptions or disease outbreaks). As older vaccines approach their expiration date they are replaced with fresh vaccines and are rotated into the market for use in campaigns and routine immunization. In 2002, the GAVI Board approved the establishment of a Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine stockpile for outbreak response and to be used for preventive campaigns. The approval was for 6 million doses each year for an initial period of 3 years.
Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIA)
More commonly known as “campaigns”, SIAs have become a critical vehicle for delivering vaccines and other health services to children; for example Vitamin A capsules are often given along with Polio drops, to strengthen the child’s immune system.
System-wide barriers (SWB)
The “access” study commissioned by GAVI and performed by McKinsey & Co in 2003, defined five specific problem areas or system-wide barriers in immunization services, whereby most of these are barriers across the whole health system or even wider:
• Management and human resources
• Monitoring and information system
• Political and financial commitment
• Physical infrastructure and equipment
• Social Mobilization and demand creation